One does not become a master teacher after four semesters in a teacher preparation program.   Learning to teach and to teach well occurs over time and involves four components: knowing, planning, doing, and reflecting.
Teaching = knowing + planning + doing + reflecting
          Knowing. Teachers need to have an organized body of knowledge related to teaching and learning (Darling-Hammond, 1999; Sternberg & Williams, 2002). This organized body of knowledge will enable you to align the approaches and strategies you use with a body of research and to make decisions that are more likely to enhance your students’ learning.  Research should inform your teaching practice.   There are four areas of knowledge that are necessary to become an expert teacher: (a) content knowledge, (b) pedagogical knowledge, (c) pedagogical content, and (d) knowledge of learners and the learning process.  Each of these is described below.
          Planning. Good teaching does not happen by accident (lesson plan design will be addressed in Chapter 20). Effective teachers plan their learning experiences (Hay/McBer, 2000). They decide exactly what they want students to learn, the teaching strategies they will use, the questions they may ask students, and related activities and assignments.  Planning enables you to create more purposeful and effective instruction and results in fewer behavior management issues.
          Doing. This third element is where you actually teach the lesson. Here you present the material to be learned using a variety of research-based methodologies and teaching strategies (pedagogical knowledge). However, the first two elements need to be addressed before you can function well here.  
          Reflecting. Effective teachers are reflective teachers (Sternberg & Williams, 2002; Zeichner & Liston, 1996). Reflection occurs on three levels:  Level I - lesson effectiveness.  You reflect to see what things worked in a particular teaching episode and what things could be changed or improved.  Level II - research base.  You reflect to see if what you're doing is aligned with a body of research related to best teaching practice.  And Level III - philosophy and values.  You reflect to see if what you're doing and how you're doing is is in harmony with your values and educational philosophy
Master Teachers Possess Four Types of Knowledge 
            Master teachers possess four types of knowledge (Bruer, 1999; Darling-Hammond, 1999;  Eggen & Kauchak, 2007):
          Knowledge of content. The expert teacher has a body of knowledge related to the content or subject matter that is to be taught.  The math teacher knows a lot about math, the social studies teacher knows a lot about social studies, etc.  This body of knowledge guides the expert teacher in deciding what is taught and in what order.   Elementary and special education teachers must know a bit about many things.
          Pedagogical knowledge. Pedagogy is the art and science of teaching. Expert teachers know a variety of skills, strategies, techniques, and methods to impart knowledge or enhance learning. Effective teachers have a toolbox filled with a variety of pedagogical skills they can use with a variety of students in a variety of situations.
          Pedagogical content knowledge. Pedagogical content knowledge is an understand of how to teach specific content or skills. For example, you know the best strategies for teaching reading, science, math, or writing.  Also, you understand how to convert your knowledge into information that students can understand.  You can break things into manageable parts, use kid language to make things clear and simple, and design activities that help students understand.
          Knowledge of learners and learning. You understand the learning process, you know how students best learn, and you recognize link between what you do and student learning. Here you understand human development and theories of learning.  That is, the basic elements of educational psychology.